Category Archives for Corporate Governance

New QCA Corporate Governance Code provides the answer for AIM companies adjusting to new rules

TheQuoted Companies Alliance has revised their QCA Corporate Governance Code for small and mid-size quoted companies in the UK.

The QCA Code includes 10 corporate governance principles that companies should follow, and step-by-step guidance on how to apply these principles effectively. It has been put together by the QCA’s Corporate Governance Expert Group and a standalone Working Group comprising leading individuals from across the small & mid-size quoted company ecosystem.

The revision of the QCA Code is especially timely and relevant. London Stock Exchange has recently announced a change in the AIM rules so that all AIM companies will be required to apply a recognised corporate governance code and explain how they do so from September 2018.

QCA research indicates that currently over half of the 900+ companies on AIM refer to the QCA Code. There is also a significant minority of AIM companies that currently do not apply any code.


Why workers’ votes promote good corporate governance

A consensus is emerging that votes at work promote good corporate governance, argues Ewan McGaughey. Here he outlines behavioural, qualitative and quantitative evidence, and explains that votes at work in Britain have among the longest, richest histories in the world.

The UK is about to stop shareholders monopolising votes for company boards, with worker voice. Currently, asset managers control most shareholder votes in public companies. They have systemic conflicts of interest, because shareholder votes can influence companies to buy asset managers’ financial products (e.g. defined contribution pensions). But now this is changing. One small step, following government consultation, is that the Financial Reporting Council will write new ‘comply or explain’ rules in the UK Corporate Governance Code, so that listed companies introduce: (1) ‘a designated non-executive director’ responsible for employee engagement, (2) ‘a formal employee advisory council’ or (3) ‘a director from the workforce’.


Directors: A warning from the CMA – Competition Law Compliance Matters

On 10 April 2018, the UK’s Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) announced the disqualification of two directors in connection with a company’s involvement in a cartel.

This is the second occasion in the last 18 months in which the CMA has secured director disqualifications in respect of companies’ infringements of UK and/or EU competition law.

This most recent case highlights the CMA’s policy of holding directors personally responsible for competition law compliance, and confirms that company directors risk disqualification when the law is breached.


The CEO/Chairman debate continues

Corporate France is bucking the global trend of splitting the roles of chairman and CEO, with Thomson Reuters data showing a steady growth in the number of French companies that have merged the posts in the past 15 years.

Almost three quarters of listed French companies tracked by Thomson Reuters now have or have had one person holding both positions, compared to 60 percent in the United States and fewer than 20 percent in Britain, Germany and Japan, according to an analysis of more than 6,500 companies. [MORE]

Corporate governance depends on shareholder oversight

The concept of corporate governance accountability unravels if shareholders sacrifice control. Read this article from the Financial Times.

Manage relations with stakeholders

In the last article we considered the increasing need to take account of the interests of stakeholders.

In many cases this requires a relationship, and relationships require communication.

The first stage is to establish processes to ensure that the organisation and the board are able to monitor relations with shareholders and other interested parties.

The second is to ensure that communications with shareholders and other interested parties are effective.

Companies should have some form of formal or informal market and competitive intelligence system by which they collect, collate and interpet information. Directors should ensure that this includes information about their key stakeholders.

The purpose of collecting information about stakeholders is to improve decision-making and to evaluate problems and opportunities to allow early action. It should also be capable of evaluating the cost and benefit of managing or mismanaging such relations.

Since stakeholders are mainly closely involved with the organisation some information can be collected through good personal relations, though it is also desirable to obtain information from independent third parties, including by monitoring the media.

As with all information collection, the board needs to monitor both its effectiveness and its cost-effectiveness.

Communication from the organisation to shareholders and stakehloders can be more formal, with particular emphasis on the content of the annual report and statements to the press and stock market. In some cases this needs to be carefully managed to ensure that some shareholders are not given privileged information; directors should make sure they are familiar with Stock Exchange rules on such matters.

It is in the interest of an organisation to maintain a pro-active and positive public relations strategy. In addition to the specific needs of shareholders and stakeholders, it should promote its vision, mission, values and policies, together with good (and bad) news about new investments, best practice, significant orders, corporate social responsibility, etc.

The chairman and chief executive will play a significant role here, but it is a responsibility of all directors to act as ambassadors for their organisation.

  • Shareholders will mainly want to know if the company is making a profit in order to be confident that they can get returns on their investment.
  • Customers will wish to know when what they want is available, what the price will be, whether the quality of the good or service meets their expectations and what they can do if it does not.
  • Suppliers will wish to know when their supplies are required and where, and in what format, they should be delivered. They may also want to know that their contracts are being honoured and that they will be paid on time.
  • Employees will want information on things like what they must do and how they are performing; any changes and how they may be implemented; human resource issues such as contracts, health and safety, grievance and discipline; meetings and actions from these meetings.
  • The local community may also wish to know how they will be affected by actions that the organisation and its managers may take.

Although much of this information relates to organisation and management matters and the detail is of no direct interest to the board, the board should ensure that communications, and thus relations with stakeholders, are adequate.

Corporate governance

Does the board monitor relations with shareholders and other interested parties and ensure that communications are effective?

  • Relations are reliable, efficient and ethical?
  • Relations are relevant for decision-making?
  • Communications are relevant, consistent, accurate and cost-effective?
  • Communications are likely to meet legitimate expectations in terms of their quantity, quality and timing?
  • Communications are unbiased with regard to particular parties and in accordance with the the needs of commercial security and Stock Exchange compliance requirements, where appropriate?

Richard Winfield is the independent authority on director development. He helps directors and boards become more effective by clarifying goals, improving communication and applying good corporate governance.

This article is part of a free e-course for directors at

The Ford Pinto and corporate culture

At the turn of the 1970s, the top brass at Ford set out to come up with a car that weighed less than 2,000 pounds and cost less than $2,000. Their answer turned out to be the Pinto, a sporty little thing with just one problem: in rear-end collisions, its gas tank had an unfortunate habit of exploding.

That fault would eventually make the Pinto one of the most notorious cars in history but no-one at the time dared report it to the company’s formidable CEO. “Hell, no” claimed one Ford engineer. “That person would have been fired.” As the cigar chomping boss Lee Iacocca was fond of declaring: “Safety doesn’t sell.”

Rather than repair the flaw, at the likely cost of about $11 a vehicle and probable heap of damning publicity, executives reportedly decided it would be cheaper simply to pay off any lawsuits. But in time, 27 people died in Pinto fires and by 1978 Ford had recalled 1.5m cars.

Think of the ingredients that went into the Pinto debacle. Fearsome management. A workforce who, it is claimed, understood that safety took lower priority. Among Ford’s managers, lawyers, designers and engineers there might have been some rotten people. But for this completely avoidable disaster to have reached such huge dimensions, there had to be more: a blinkered corporate culture that apparently encouraged staff to behave unethically and to turn a blind eye to the tragic consequences.

The cases involving the explosion of Ford Pintos due to a defective fuel system design led to the debate of many issues, most centring around the use by Ford of a cost-benefit analysis and the ethics surrounding its decision not to upgrade the fuel system based on this analysis.

Should a risk/benefit analysis be used in situations where a defect in design or manufacturing could lead to death or seriously bodily harm, such as in the Ford Pinto situation?

Although Ford had access to a new design which would decrease the possibility of the Ford Pinto from exploding, the company chose not to implement the design, at a cost of $11 per car, even though it had done an analysis showing that the new design would result in 180 less deaths. The company defended itself on the grounds that it used the accepted risk/benefit analysis to determine if the monetary costs of making the change were greater than the societal benefit.

Based on the numbers Ford used, the cost would have been $137 million versus the $49.5million price tag put on the deaths, injuries, and car damages, and thus Ford felt justified not implementing the design change.

There are several reasons why such a strictly economic theory should not be used. Simple public relations examples such as Perrier and Toyota have demonstrated the damage of not responding quickly. Eventually, Ford suffered significantly from negative publicity and the judgements and settlements resulting from the lawsuits

More importantly, it seems unethical to determine that people should be allowed to die or be seriously injured because it would cost too much to prevent it. Secondly, such analysis does not take into all the consequences. Also, some things just can’t be measured in terms of dollars, and that includes human life.

In a new book called “Blind Spots”, authors Max Bazerman and Ann Tenbrunsel look at how businesses from Ford to Enron to subprime mortgages can end up in ethical disaster.

They describe a process of “ethical fading” in businesses where maximising returns is encouraged over fairness to fellow employees and customers. The result is that right and wrong go out of the window.

How does this come about and how can it be prevented?

Leadership is a key responsibility of the board of directors, and also senior management. They set the standards by their own behaviour.

First thing is to adopt and promote a set of values; next to interpret them into behaviours and ensure that good behaviours are supported and bad ones are discouraged.

I tell my clients that a values statement is not worthwhile unless it is, or at least could be, used against management.

Values statements should be so ingrained that when an instruction or a decision appears to be inconsistent with the promulgated values, an employee should feel able to challenge it.

Next, is needed a formal and accepted complaints or whistle blowing system. So often, we hear of whistle blowers who are not only hounded out of their organisation but often also blacklisted within their industry.

And yet, they should be the safety valve that protects an organisation from internal rot. In a healthy culture whistle blowing would be welcomed, and would then become unnecessary. A means of ensuring this is to have a formal system by which individuals can contact a senior officer in confidence and independent of their line management structure.

What is the role of a coach in this context?

When coaching directors or senior executives, to challenge them on their attitude to corporate values and individuals who challenge them. When coaching individuals who are concerned about inappropriate behaviour, to coach them in assertiveness and to help them to consider their options and risks; then to develop a strategy.

Corporate rot starts with small actions that are tolerated, and like any other form of rot, clearing it up once it has become established is more expensive than attacking it immediately. It is in everybody’s interests to ensure that organisations have processes for both prevention and early action..

Directors: Delegate authority to managers

You can be a director and a manager in the same organisation.

It is really important to recognise that these are different roles: you must act as two different people.

If you are a director and not a manager in the same organisation, then you have to understand the boundaries between the board and the management.

Directors direct – and managers manage!

Nonetheless, the board is responsible for the management’s actions and performance.

The board remains responsible for overall governance. This includes ensuring senior management establish and maintain adequate systems of risk management and that the level of capital held is consistent with the risk profile of the organisation.

So, the board needs to have a clear strategy of what to delegate to management and how to monitor and evaluate the implementation of policies, strategies and business plans.

The responsibility to act and decide upon matters for action in between meetings of the board may be delegated to an executive committee.

In general the board will delegate the management of the organisation to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or Managing Director (MD).

The CEO/MD is responsible for delivering services according to the strategic plan, within the policies and budgets approved by the board. A team of managers oversee the day-to-day operations of the organisation under the general direction of the CEO/MD.

Delegation to the CEO/MD

Here is an example of a board delegating authority to the CEO/MD over the day to day management of the company, its subsidiaries and their respective operations. This delegation of authority includes responsibility for:

  • developing business plans, budgets and company strategies for consideration by the board and, to the extent approved by the board, implementing these plans, budgets and strategies;
  • identifying and managing operational risks on a daily basis and, where those risks could have a material impact on the company’s businesses, formulating strategies for managing these risks for consideration by board;
  • managing the company’s current financial and other reporting mechanisms as well as its control and monitoring systems to ensure that these mechanisms and systems capture all relevant material information on a timely basis and are functioning effectively;
  • ensuring that the board and its various committees are provided with sufficient information on a timely basis in regard to the company’s business and, in particular, with respect to the company’s performance, financial condition, operating results and prospects, to enable the board and those committees to fulfil their governance responsibilities; and
  • implementing the policies, processes and codes of conduct approved by the board.

Corporate governance

Does your organisation have a clear strategy for delegating authority to management, including reports and measurements that enable the board to monitor performance?

  • Measures are complementary to and consistent with management’s planning and control systems and undertaken in a manner likely to engender managers’ commitment and support?
  • Reports and board reviews cover at least profitability, cash flow, investment and risk?
  • Focuses on causes and consequences of important variances between planned and actual performance?
  • Reports are able to provide early warnings of major risks and notice of changes to the external environment?
  • Reports are presented in time for directors to respond and for the board to ensure corrective actions are taken?
  • The board monitors management’s ability and performance in anticipating, identifying and responding to strategic change?

Review of AIM rules

The London Stock Exchange has published a discussion paper that identifies the following key areas of its review of the AIM Rules for Companies and the AIM Rules for Nominated Advisers:

Entry criteria

As AIM has matured and the market capitalisation of AIM companies and the average amount of capital they raise have increased over time, the London Stock Exchange (LSE) is considering whether to introduce a minimum free float requirement and a minimum capital raising threshold.

Based on the size of fundraise by new AIM applicants between 2014 and 2016, the LSE asks for feedback on possible minimum fundraising levels.

Early notification process

Currently, nomads are only required to approach the LSE at an early stage of an application if there are unusual features or potential issues that may be of concern to the LSE.

The LSE proposes to require early confidential discussions for all proposed admissions in order to reduce the risks of a delay, postponement or withdrawal of a proposed admission and to avoid issues towards the end of the application process.

Assessment of appropriateness

The LSE is proposing to include in the AIM Rules for Nominated Advisers a non-exhaustive list as guidance to nomads of the factors they should take into account when assessing the appropriateness of a company prior to its admission to AIM.

The LSE emphasises that each of these factors, in their own right, can be of such importance as to render a company not appropriate for AIM.

Corporate governance

The LSE is examining whether the current corporate governance disclosure requirement in AIM Rule 26 remains sufficient or whether it should make it mandatory for AIM Companies to annually comply and explain against existing codes of governance, such as the Quoted Companies Alliance Corporate Governance Code for Small and Mid-Size Quoted Companies and the UK Corporate Governance Code.

Source: The full article from Investment Week can be found here.

People with Significant Control

Until now AIM companies have been exempt from the need to create and maintain a PSC register, however, this exemption no longer applies and AIM companies are now required to create and maintain a PSC register, and must file PSC information with the central public register at Companies House.

You can find out more in this article from The International Law Office.

1 2 3